Pomen cepljenj za otroke

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V zadnjih nekaj letih je postala problematika cepljenja pereč problem, ki je starše razklal na dve polovici – na tiste, ki so za in na tiste, ki cepljenju nasprotujejo. Če je cepljenje še pred nekaj leti veljalo za najbolj učinkovit način pred širjenjem bolezni, je danes njegov pomen pod velikim vprašanjem. Zaskrbljeni starši se sprašujejo, ali bo ta nekoč rutinski in samoumeven postopek naredil več škode, kot koristi.

Katera so obvezna cepljenja otrok?

V 1. letu starosti je otrok cepljen 3× in sicer proti davici, tetanusu, oslovskem kašlju, Hib (hemofilus influence tipa B) in otroški paralizi. Cepljenja si po odmerkih sledijo v naslednjem zaporedju: 3. mesec, 4. – 5. mesec in 6. mesec starosti.

Posledica tetanusa.

V 2. letu starosti je otrok cepljen 2×. V starosti 12 – 14 mesecev prejme 4. odmerek cepiva proti davici, tetanusu, oslovskem kašlju, Hib (hemofilus influence tipa B) in otroški paralizi, med 12. – 18. mesecem pa prejme še cepivo proti ošpicam, mumpsu in rdečkam (1. odmerek).

Sledi cepljenje pred vstopom v šolo, ko je otrok star 5 – 6 let. Otrok je cepljen 2

× – prejme 2. odmerek cepiva proti ošpicam, mumpsu in rdečkam ter 1. in 2. odmerek cepiva proti hepatitisu B.

Po vstopu v šolo je otrok cepljen še 3×. V starosti 6 let (1. razred) prejme 3. odmerek cepiva proti hepatitisu B, pri 8. letih (3. razred) prejme 5. odmerek cepiva proti davici in tetanusu ter pri 16. – 18. letih (srednja šola) 6. odmerek cepiva proti tetanusu.

Kakšen je pravzaprav namen oziroma pomen cepljenja?

Osnovni namen cepljenja je otroka preventivno zaščititi pred boleznimi, ki so nekoč v veliki meri ogrožale zdravje ljudi, povzročale pa so tudi invalidnost ali motnje v razvoju in rasti. S cepljenjem preprečimo nenadzorovano širjenje bolezni, ki bi se sicer lahko spremenila v pravo epidemijo. Marsikdo bi na tem mestu rekel, da bolezni, ki smo jih poznali nekoč, danes ne poznamo več, a tudi tukaj ima pomembno vlogo cepljenje, saj so prav redna cepljenja tista, ki so nam pomagala iztrebiti smrtonosne bolezni. Kot primer lahko vzamemo davico, za katero nismo slišali vse od leta 1976 in otroško paralizo, katere zadnji primer so zabeležili leta 1978. Če bi malce pobrskali po spletu in si ogledali stare fotografije otrok z omenjenima boleznima, bi kaj kmalu spoznali njune bizarne simptome, ki so bistveno iznakazili videz prizadetih otrok. Kljub rednim cepljenjem nam vse do danes ni uspelo iztrebiti ošpic in nekaterih drugih bolezni, drži pa, da tudi te danes niso več tako zelo nevarne, kot so bile nekoč. Omenjena cepljenja so povsem varna izbira, cepiva pa so učinkovita in imajo dolgotrajen učinek.

Je cepljenje mogoče zavrniti?

Obvezna cepljenja je mogoče zavrniti le v nekaj primerih, v katerih pediater poda predlog za opustitev cepljenja, vendar mora za to imeti dober razlog. Zavrnitev cepljenja se lahko zgodi, če ima otrok alergijo na katero izmed sestavin, ki se nahajajo v cepivu, če je prišlo pri zadnjem cepljenju z določeno vrsto cepiva do resnih neželenih stranskih učinkov in če se otrok sooča z zdravstvenim stanjem, ki je nezdružljivo s cepljenjem.

Če je cepljenje varno, zakaj se o njem pojavlja toliko dvomov?

Najprej je potrebno omeniti, da cepljenje ni 100% učinkovito, temveč je učinkovito v 95% primerih – preostalih 5% ostaja razlog, zakaj so starši pričeli dvomiti v njegove pozitivne plati. Nekatera cepiva vsebujejo živi virus, zaradi katerega se lahko, medtem ko otroško telo gradi imuniteto, pojavi vročina. Prav tako so v javnost prišli podatki, da naj bi nekatera cepiva vsebovala snov, imenovano thiomersal, ki vsebuje živo srebro. Zadnji razlog, zaradi katerega prihaja do deljenih mnenj o cepljenju pa je, da so se v sodobnem času pojavila tudi novejša cepljenja, ki niso obvezna, so pa priporočljiva – mnogi so prepričani, da gre le za željo po zaslužku farmacevtskih firm, zato visi zaupanje v cepljenje na zelo tanki nitki.

Tisti starši, ki otroka ne cepijo, bi morali biti kaznovani

Otroška paraliza.

Takšnega mnenja so vsi starši, ki so ZA cepljenje. Nedavno smo bili priča zgodbi, ko je v Sloveniji zbolel za ošpicami otrok, ki je prejel samo en odmerek cepiva. Prišlo je do nasprotujočih si mnenj, večina pa je vladi predlagala zelo stroge ukrepe za starše v primeru necepljenja, med drugim tudi, da bi otrokom, ki niso cepljeni, prepovedali obiskovanje vrtca ali šole in da bi starši sami krili stroške v primeru potrebe po zdravljenju, če bi otrok zbolel za boleznijo, proti kateri ni bil cepljen. Predlagana je bila celo postavitev vrtcev in šol, katere bi obiskovali le otroci, ki niso bili cepljeni. Staršem prav tako priporočajo seznanitev s posledicami tovrstnih obolenj, ki se še danes pojavljajo pri otrocih v nerazvitih državah, kjer cepljenje sploh ne obstaja. Če se določene bolezni pri nas ne pojavljajo več, še ne pomeni, da so povsem izumrle. Kaj se torej zgodi, če nekdo, ki zaradi prepričanja staršev v otroški dobi ni bil cepljen, kot odrasla oseba potuje na področje, kjer so te bolezni še zmeraj prisotne? Obstaja velika verjetnost, da se bo okužil in bolezen prinesel tudi domov. Zasledila sem mnenje ene izmed mamic, ki pravi tako: »Tudi jaz svojih otrok raje ne bi cepila, a kaj bi se zgodilo, če bi tako razmišljala vsaki mati? Gre za nekakšen »davek« družbi in zdravstvenemu sistemu – je en kup cen, ki jih moramo plačati, če živimo v tej družbi in ena izmed njih je tudi cepljenje.« Vprašanje pa je, koliko bi bila naša populacija zaščitena pred boleznijo, če bi bilo cepljenih le nekaj % celotne populacije? Kaj torej storiti – raje otroka cepiti in pri tem tvegati, da bo imel po cepljenju nekaj neželenih stranskih učinkov ali otroka ne cepiti in tvegati, da bo nekoč zbolel, postal invalid ali celo umrl zaradi nalezljive bolezni?

Kako razmišljajo starši, ki svojih otrok ne želijo cepiti?

Bolezni, proti katerim cepimo otroke, v sodobnem času niso tako zelo nevarne, kot so bile nekoč, poleg tega pa imamo na voljo odlično zdravniško oskrbo. Prebolevanje teh bolezni naj bi prav tako okrepilo imunski sistem. Ali je smiselno cepljenje proti boleznim, ki danes ne obstajajo več? Otrok bolezen preboli hitreje, kot odrasla oseba. To so eni izmed najpogostejših argumentov staršev, ki svojih otrok ne želijo cepiti. Na stvar je potrebno pogledati tudi z drugega vidika – ošpice res niso nevarne, dokler ne pride do zapletov, kot tudi običajna gripa ali prehlad nista nevarna, razen, če pride do zapletov. Vse te bolezni, ki so v preteklosti pobile ali spremenile v invalide na stotine otrok, več niso »videti nevarne« samo iz tega razloga, ker se danes pojavljajo zelo redko. Kaj pa bi se zgodilo, če ne bi poznali cepiv? Bi se bolezni, ki smo jih poznali nekoč, spet vrnile in pričele izbirati svoje žrtve?

Drugi starši proti cepljenju ne protestirajo zato, ker naj bi bilo nevarno in škodljivo, temveč zato, ker imajo nekatere države na voljo prostovoljno cepljenje, medtem ko je to pri nas obvezno, kar pomeni, da nimamo praktično nobene možnosti izbire.

Svet brez zdravil je znanstvena fantastika

Ošpice.

Mnenje torej še vedno ostaja zelo deljeno, okrog cepljenja pa se je dvignilo že veliko prahu. Sama sicer ostajam neopredeljena, razmišljam pa v smeri zdravil, ki imajo tudi ogromno neželenih stranskih učinkov, pa vendar jih mnogokrat niti ne preverimo in zdravilo jemljemo zato, ker je tako pač naročil zdravnik. Ti stranski učinki so vse prej kot nedolžni. Idealno bi bilo živeti v svetu, v katerem ne bi poznali potrebe po cepljenju in po uživanju zdravil, vendar takšen svet ostaja znanstvena fantastika. Kar je skregano z zdravo kmečko pametjo pa je, da cepljenje odvračamo zato, ker naj bi bilo škodljivo in ker ima določene stranske učinke ali preprosto zato, ker podpiramo naravne načine zdravljenja. Ali sadje, ki po 1 mesecu v košari ohrani popoln videz, ni škodljivo? Ali doma pridelano (zdravo) jabolko ne zgnije po nekaj dneh na sobni temperaturi? Ali bomo v primeru, da bo otrok, ki ni bil cepljen, bolezen, zaradi katere so nekoč otroci umirali, zdravili s kamiličnim čajem? Poraja se ogromno vprašanj, na katere preprosto ne moremo najti dovolj pametnih odgovorov.

 In tudi, če je cepljenje danes za marsikoga »totalna bedarija«, se moramo zavedati, da govorimo o boleznih, zaradi katerih je še ne tako davno nazaj ogromno otrok umrlo v hudih mukah.

Sara Savec

 

89 KOMENTARJI

  1. Otrok, ki je cepljen, je tako kot tisto jabolko, ki nikoli ne zgnije… Na prvi pogled ni z njim nič narobe, če se malo poglobiš, pa ugotoviš, da je z njim vse narobe. Tako bolni, kot smo zdaj, nismo bili še nikoli v zgodovini človeštva, in to, da vseprisotno trpljenje (oz. z drugimi besedami slabo zdravje) spregledamo, medtem ko se hvalimo zaradi manj smrti zaradi nalezljivih bolezni, se mi zdi neverjetno. S tem da ni bilo nikoli niti približno dokazano, da so cepiva učinkovita, saj so nalezljive bolezni izginjale že same po sebi. Glede cepljenja predlagam branje serije blog objav Alenke Vindiš o s cepivi poškodovanih otrocih (in odraslih). Tam najdete opise že več kot 20 hudo ali malo manj hudo poškodovanih in enega mrtvega dojenčka. Res me zanima, koliko ljudi, ki promovirajo cepljenje, si upa prevzeti odgovornost za te ljudi?

    PS: Zanimivo se mi zdi, da sem na tale zapis prišla iz zapisa o kortikosteroidih – hud kroničen dermatitis je namreč en izmed najbolj pogostih stranskih učinkov cepiv…

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